NERSCPowering Scientific Discovery Since 1974


An Open-science Three-dimensional Multiphysics Code for Collaboration on  Science Applications

Developed by LBNL, LLNL, UCSD and UCLA


Non-orthogonal moving mesh with AMR refinement

ALE-AMR is both an open science NERSC code and a methodology for modeling a variety of regimes ranging from hot radiating plasmas and warm dense matter to cold fragmenting solids. Applications of the ALE-AMR code include laser/target effects on the NIF laser at LLNL, ion beam target performance on the NDCX-I/NDCX-II experiment at LBNL, and plasma/solid interactions. The code combines Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). Also included is a flexible strength/failure framework that can store persistent data required for accurate material failure models. Radiation diffusion in included via an operator spliting technique. Various surface tension models are also being developed for the code.

Related Publications


Wangyi Liu, Alice Koniges, Kevin Gott, David Eder, John Barnard, Alex Friedman, Nathan Masters, Aaron Fisher, "Surface tension models for a multi-material ALE code with AMR", Computers & Fluids, January 2017, doi:


Michael A. Purvis, Alexander Schafgans, Daniel J. W. Brown, Igor Fomenkov, Rob Rafac, Josh Brown, Yezheng Tao, Slava Rokitski, Mathew Abraham, Mike Vargas, Spencer Rich, Ted Taylor, David Brandt, Alberto Pirati, Aaron Fisher, Howard Scott, Alice Koniges, David Eder, Scott Wilks, Anthony Link, Steven Langer, "Advancements in predictive plasma formation modeling", Proc. SPIE 9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII, 97760K (March 18, 2016); doi:10.1117/12.2221991, March 18, 2016,

This modeling is performed to advance the rate of learning about optimal EUV generation for laser produced plasmas and to provide insights where experimental results are not currently available. The goal is to identify key physical processes necessary for an accurate and predictive model capable of simulating a wide range of conditions. This modeling will help to drive source performance scaling in support of the EUV Lithography roadmap. The model simulates pre-pulse laser interaction with the tin droplet and follows the droplet expansion into the main pulse target zone. Next, the interaction of the expanded droplet with the main laser pulse is simulated. We demonstrate the predictive nature of the code and provide comparison with experimental results. ALE-AMR and other codes are used for the modeling.


Alice Koniges, Nathan Masters, Aaron Fisher, David Eder, Wangyi Liu, Robert Anderson, David Benson,
and Andrea Bertozzi,
"Multi-Material ALE with AMR for Modeling Hot Plasmas and Cold Fragmenting Materials", Plasma Science and Technology 17, No. 2, 117-128, 2015, doi: 10.1088/1009-0630/17/2/05

A.C. Fisher, D.S. Bailey, T.B. Kaiser, D.C. Eder, B.T.N. Gunney, N.D.
Masters, A.E. Koniges, R.W. Anderson,
"An AMR Capable Finite Element Diffusion Solver for ALE Hydrocodes", Plasma Science and Technology 17, No. 2, 109-116, 2015, doi: 10.1088/1009-0630/17/2/04


J.N. Brooks, A. Hassanein, A. Koniges, P.S. Krstic, T.D. Rognlien, T. Sizyuk, V. Sizyuk, and D. P. Stotler, "Scientific and Computational Challenges in Coupled Plasma Edge/Plasma-Material Interactions for Fusion Tokamaks", Contrib. Plasma Phys. 54, No. 4-6, 329 – 340, 2014, doi: 10.1002/ctpp.201410014

Alice Koniges, Wangyi Liu, Steven Lidia, Thomas Schenkel, John Barnard, Alex Friedman, David Eder, Aaron Fisher, and Nathan Masters, "Advanced Target Effects Modeling for Ion Accelerators and other High-Energy-Density Experiments", The Eighth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Application (in review), 2014,


Alice Koniges, Wangyi Liu, John Barnard, Alex Friedman, Grant Logan, David Eder, Aaron Fisher, Nathan Masters, and Andrea Bertozzi, "Modeling warm dense matter experiments using the 3D ALE-AMR code and the move toward exascale computing", EPJ Web of Conferences 59, 09006, 2013,

D. Eder, D. Bailey, F. Chambers, I. Darnell, P. Di Nicola, S. Dixit, A. Fisher, G.Gururangan, D. Kalantar, A. Koniges, W. Liu, M. Marinak, N. Masters, V. Mlaker, R. Prasad, S. Sepke, P. Whitman, "Observations and modeling of debris and shrapnel impacts on optics and diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility", EPJ Web of Conferences 59, 08010, 2013,

D.C. Eder, A.C. Fisher, A.E. Koniges and N.D. Masters, "Modelling debris and shrapnel generation in inertial confinement fusion experiments", Nuclear Fusion 53 113037, 2013, doi: 10.1088/0029-5515/53/11/113037

Modelling and mitigation of damage are crucial for safe and economical operation of high-power laser facilities. Experiments at the National Ignition Facility use a variety of targets with a range of laser energies spanning more than two orders of magnitude (~14 kJ to ~1.9 MJ). Low-energy inertial confinement fusion experiments are used to study early-time x-ray load symmetry on the capsule, shock timing, and other physics issues. For these experiments, a significant portion of the target is not completely vaporized and late-time (hundreds of ns) simulations are required to study the generation of debris and shrapnel from these targets. Damage to optics and diagnostics from shrapnel is a major concern for low-energy experiments. We provide the first full-target simulations of entire cryogenic targets, including the Al thermal mechanical package and Si cooling rings. We use a 3D multi-physics multi-material hydrodynamics code, ALE-AMR, for these late-time simulations. The mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of shrapnel are calculated for three experiments with laser energies ranging from 14 to 250 kJ. We calculate damage risk to optics and diagnostics for these three experiments. For the lowest energy re-emit experiment, we provide a detailed analysis of the effects of shrapnel impacts on optics and diagnostics and compare with observations of damage sites.

A. Koniges, W. Lui, Y. He, D. Eder, A. Fisher, N. Masters, and R. W. Anderson, Multi-Material Plasma Modeling on HPC Platforms, Invited: 23rd International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Plasmas Beijing, China, September 13, 2013,

A. Koniges, W. Lui, S. Lidia, T. Schenkel, J. Barnard, A. Friedman, D. Eder, A. Fisher, and N. Masters, Advanced Target Effects Modeling for Ion Accelerators and other High-Energy-Density Experiments, 8th International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications, Nara, Japan, September 10, 2013,

A. Friedman, R. H. Cohen, D. P. Grote, W. M. Sharp, I. D. Kaganovich, A. E. Koniges, W. Liu, "Heavy Ion Beams and Interactions with Plasmas and Targets (HEDLP and IFE)", NERSC FES Requirements Workshop: Heavy Ion Fusion and Non-Neutral Plasmas, March 2013,

J. Barnard, R. M. More, P. A. Ni, A. Friedman, E. Henestroza, I. Kaganovich, A. Koniges, J. W. Kwan, W. Liu, A. Ng,
B.G. Logan, E. Startsev, M. Terry, A. Yuen,
NDCX-II Experimental Plans and Target Simulations, West Coast High Energy Density Science Cooperative Meeting Berkeley and Palo Alto, California, January 2013,


Wangyi Liu, John Barnard, Alice Koniges, David Eder, Nathan Masters, Aaron Fisher, Alex Friedman, "A numerical scheme for including surface tension effects in hydrodynamic simulation: a full Korteweg type model without parasitic flows", APS DPP 2012, 2012,


Wangyi Liu, John Barnard, Alex Friedman, Nathan Masters, Aaron Fisher, Alice Koniges, David Eder, "Modeling droplet breakup effects with applications in the warm dense matter NDCX experiment", APS DPP, 2011,

David Eder, David Bailey, Andrea Bertozzi, Aaron Fisher, Alice Koniges, Wangyi Liu, Nathan Masters, Marty Marniak, Late-Time Numerical Simulations of High-Energy-Density (HED) Targets, Twenty Second International Conference on Numerical Simulations of Plasmas, September 7, 2011,

Wangyi Liu, John Barnard, Alex Friedman, Nathan Masters, Aaron Fisher, Velemir Mlaker,
Alice Koniges, David Eder,
"Modeling droplet breakup effects in warm dense matter experiments with diffuse interface methods in the ALE-AMR code", Proceedings of the 2011 SciDAC Conference, August 4, 2011,

Alice Koniges, Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities -- Insertion Paths, Panel - Institute for Computing in Science, Workshop, August 2011,

W. M. Sharp, A. Friedman, D. P. Grote, J. J. Barnard, R. H. Cohen, M. A. Dorf, S. M. Lund, L. J. Perkins, M. R. Terry, B. G. Logan, F. M. Bieniosek, A. Faltens, E. Henestroza, J.-Y. Jung, J. W. Kwan, , A. E. Koniges, E. P. Lee, S. M. Lidia, P. A. Ni, L. L. Reginato, P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, J. H. Takakuwa, J.-L. Vay, W. L. Waldron, R. C. Davidson, E. P. Gilson, I. D. Kaganovich, H. Qin, E. Startsev, I. Haber, R. A. Kishek, "Inertial Fusion Driven By Intense Heavy-Ion Beams", Proceedings of 2011 Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, NY, USA, March 2011, 1386-1393,

Wangyi Liu, John Bernard, Alex Friedman, Nathan Masters, Aaron Fisher, Velemir Mlaker, Alice Koniges, David Eder, "Modeling droplet breakup effects in warm dense matter experiments with diffuse interface methods in ALE-AMR code", SciDAC conference, 2011,

Wangyi Liu, John Barnard, Alex Friedman, Nathan Masters, Aaron Fisher, Alice Koniges, David Eder, Modeling droplet breakup effects with diffuse interface methods in ALE-AMR code with application in modeling NDCX-II experiments, Bulletin of the American Physical Society, 2011,

D Eder, D Bailey, F Chamgers, I Darnell, PD Nicola, S Dixit, A Fisher, G Gururangan, D Kalantar, A Koniges, others, Observations and Modeling of Debris and Shrapnel Impacts on Optics and Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, 2011,


Alice Koniges, Robert Preissl, Jihan Kim, D Eder, A Fisher, N Masters, V Mlaker, S Ethier, W Wang, M Head-Gordon, N Wichmann, "Application acceleration on current and future Cray platforms,", Proc. Cray User Group Meeting, Edinburgh, Scotland, May 2010,

Alice Koniges, Robert Preissl, Stephan Ethier, John Shalf, What’s Ahead for Fusion Computing?, International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference, April 2010,

AE Koniges, ND Masters, AC Fisher, RW Anderson, DC Eder, TB Kaiser, DS Bailey, B Gunney, P Wang, B Brown, K Fisher, F Hansen, BR Maddox, DJ Benson, M Meyers, A Geille, "ALE-AMR: A new 3D multi-physics code for modeling laser/target effects", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2010, 244:032019,


D. C. Eder, R. W. Anderson, D. S. Bailey, P. Bell, D. J. Benson, A. L. Bertozzi, W. Bittle, D, Bradley, C. G. Brown, T. J. Clancy, H. Chen, J. M. Chevalier, P. Combis, L. Dauffy, C. S. Debonnel, M. J. Eckart, A. C. Fisher, A. Geille, V. Y. Glebov, J. Holder, J. P. Jadaud, O. Jones, T. B. Kaiser, D. Kalantar, H. Khater, J. Kimbrough, A. E. Koniges, O. L. Landen, B. J. MacGowan, N. D. Masters, A. MacPhee, B. R. Maddox, M. Meyers, S. Osher, R. Prasad, D. Raffestin, J. Raimbourg, V. Rekow, C. Sangster, P. Song, C. Stoeckl, M. L. Stowell, J. M. Teran, A. Throop, R. Tommasini, J. Vierne, D. White, P. Whitman, "Assessment and Mitigation of Radiation, EMP, Debris and Shrapnel Impacts at Mega-Joule Class Laser Facilities", J. Physics, Conference Series, 2010, 244:0320018,

N. Masters, T.B. Kaiser, R.W. Anderson, D.C. Eder, A.C. Fisher, A.E. Koniges, "Laser Ray Tracing in a Parallel Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrocode", J. Physics, Conf. Ser. 244: 032022, 2010,

AC Fisher, DS Bailey, TB Kaiser, BTN Gunney, ND Masters, AE Koniges, DC Eder, RW Anderson, "Modeling heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion equation in NIF ALE-AMR", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2010, 244:022075,


MA Meyers, H Jarmakani, BY Cao, CT Wei, B Kad, BA Remington, EM Bringa, B Maddox, D Kalantar, D Eder, A Koniges, "Laser compression and fragmentation of metals", DYMAT 2009-9th International Conference on the Mechanical and Physical Behaviour of Materials under Dynamic Loading, 2009, 2:999--1006,

D C Eder, A E Koniges, N D Masters, A C Fisher, R W Anderson, K R Gaunt and D J Benson, Fragmentation and penetration visualization from the multi-physics ALE-AMR code, SciDAC 2009 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 180 013001, June 15, 2009,


On Monday, June 15, 2009, the SciDAC 2009 conference sponsored an Electronic Visualization and Poster Night. Scientists involved in DOE Office of Science research, such as SciDAC, INCITE, and core-funded programs, were encouraged to submit an image or animation to be shown at this event. A DVD of those images and animations is attached to the inside back cover of this proceedings book. 


A. E. Koniges, N. D. Masters, A. C. Fisher, R. W. Anderson, D. C. Eder, D. Benson, T. B. Kaiser, B. T. Gunney, P. Wang, B. R. Maddox, J. F. Hansen, D. H. Kalantar, P. Dixit, H. Jarmakani, M. A. Meyers, "A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model", LLNL-TR-411072, March 5, 2009, doi: 10.2172/950085

Alice Koniges,D. Eder,O. Landen,R. Anderson,A. Fisher,B. Gunney,N. Masters,B. Maddox,F. Hansen,B. Brown,K. Fisher,T. Kaiser,A. Geille,J-P. Jadaud,J-M. Chevalier,D. Raffestin,D. Benson,M. Meyers,H. Jarmakani,B. Blue5, "Target Design and Debris Modeling with NIF ALE-AMR", NIF Design Review, 2009,


DC Eder, AE Koniges, OL Landen, ND Masters, AC Fisher, OS Jones, TI Suratwala, LJ Suter, "Debris and shrapnel mitigation procedure for NIF experiments", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2008, 112:032023,

AC Fisher, ND Masters, P Dixit, DJ Benson, AE Koniges, RW Anderson, BTN Gunney, P Wang, R Becker, "Hierarchical material models for fragmentation modeling in NIF-ALE-AMR", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2008, 112:022027,

ND Masters, RW Anderson, NS Elliott, AC Fisher, BT Gunney, AE Koniges, "Interface reconstruction in two-and three-dimensional arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement simulations", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2008, 112:022017,

AE Koniges, C. Debonnel, J. Andrew, D. Eder, D. Kalantar, N. Masters, A. Fisher, R. Anderson, B. Gunney, B. Brown, K. Sain, F. Bonneau, J-L. Bourgade, J-M .Chevalier, P. Combis, A. Geille, J-P. Jadaud, R. Maroni, D. Raffestin, J-L. Ulmer, J. Vierne, M. Tobin, M. Meyers, H. Jarmakani, "Experiments for the validation of debris and shrapnel calculations", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2008, 112:032072,

Alice E Koniges, Brian TN Gunney, Robert W Anderson, Aaron C Fisher, Nathan D Masters, "Development Strategies for Modern Predictive Simulation Codes", Advances in Parallel Computing, 2008, 15:697--704,